ARTICLESJune 30, 2023

The Window of Tolerance

The Window of Tolerance was a concept developed by psychiatrist Dr. Dan Siegel as a way to understand trauma and stress. It refers to the zone of “arousal” within which an individual can effectively cope with and respond to stressors and challenges in their environment. When you are within your window of tolerance, you are able to handle everyday stressors without becoming overwhelmed or dissociated. You can regulate your emotions, think rationally, maintain a sense of safety, and engage in adaptive behaviours. 

Experiencing stress and trauma can shrink your window of tolerance, forcing you to function outside of it. Within this narrowed range, even mundane and routine experiences can provoke an exaggerated sense of threat. When you are outside your window of tolerance, the prefrontal cortex region of the brain shuts down. This is the part of the brain that helps us think rationally. Consequently, two states may emerge: hyperarousal or hypoarousal.

Hyperarousal is commonly known as the “fight or flight” response and is characterized by excessive activation or energy. It can result in feelings of anxiety, anger, aggression, racing thoughts and impulsivity. In this state, someone is always “on” and on the lookout for danger. Hypoarousal on the other hand, is a state of emotional and physical shutdown. It often presents itself as feelings of numbness, dissociation, and withdrawal. 

Everyone has a different window of tolerance. As previously mentioned, stress and trauma can shrink it. However, there are other factors that can influence this window. Genetics, lifestyle factors, social support and mental health conditions can all impact your window of tolerance. The most important thing to remember is that your window of tolerance is not a fixed state. You have the power to expand your window of tolerance and become more resilient to the stressors around you. Here are some effective strategies to consider:


The first step to widening your window of tolerance is to recognize when you are moving outside your window of tolerance. You can do this by paying attention to your body sensations, emotions, and thoughts. Observing your internal experiences will help you identify triggers, detect early signs of dysregulation, and understand your personal strengths and limitations. Journaling, tracking your mood or doing thought records are all great ways to do this.

Grounding techniques

Grounding exercises can regulate your nervous system and create a sense of safety by connecting you to the present moment. This can help decrease feelings of fear, anxiety, or dissociation. Some grounding exercises that you can try include the 5-4-3-2-1 technique, body scans, progressive muscle relaxation and mindful walking. Experiment with different techniques to find the ones that resonate with you the most.

Deep breathing

Your breath is a powerful tool that can be harnessed to counteract stress. Slow deep breaths activate the parasympathetic system, the part of your nervous system which governs the body’s relaxation and restorative response. Deep breathing techniques such as diaphragmatic breathing, box breathing or 4-7-8 breathing lead to a decrease in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension. This physiological shift promotes a sense of calmness and expands your capacity to tolerate stressors.

Social support

Connecting with others and talking to someone about your feelings and experiences can provide validation and a sense of safety. By cultivating a strong social support system, you enhance your emotional well-being, improve your stress resilience, and increase your capacity to navigate life’s challenges with greater ease. Family members, friends or a therapist can all serve as valuable allies when life becomes challenging.


A therapist or counsellor can provide guidance and support with processing and healing from trauma. Consider seeking professional help, especially if you are struggling with past traumas or ongoing challenges that impact your ability to regulate your emotions effectively. 

Remember, the window of tolerance is not a fixed state. You have the power to expand your window and become more resilient. Prioritize self-care and engage in practices that support our mental and emotional health. This is a journey of self-discovery and growth!